Who Owns Copyright in Source Code for Start-Up Company?
Start-up ventures, especially in the area of technology, often begin based on nothing more than good faith assumptions of the founders. Frequently they operate informally without understanding the need to document the relationships among the venture, its principals and its employees. More often than not avoidable disputes ensue, creating needless expense, arguments and sometimes the split-up of the founders or the loss of key employees leading to the dissolution of the venture.
JustMed, Inc. v. Michael Byce, a case decided by the U.S. 9th Circuit Court of Appeals earlier this month, involved a dispute between the founders of the venture about the ownership of the copyright in computer source code. This case is a classic illustration of what not to do; these facts are often present in startup companies (not only the IT field), namely the absence of written agreements and formal employment procedures.
Former brothers-in-law, Joel Just and Michael Byce, patented a device to help those whose larynxes have been removed. Together they formed JustMed for the manufacture and development of the necessary hardware and software. Byce was a shareholder and served on the Board of Directors. He took over the development of the software from a company employee, and basically rewrote the source code. JustMed had no employment agreement with Byce; he created the source code at home; worked his own hours; and his pay was in company stock.
Byce was anxious that he would not receive his fair share should there be a buy-out or merger of the company. So, to protect what he considered his intellectual property, he deleted the source code from the company's computers.
The expected lawsuit followed. From JustMed's point of view, it owned the copyright in the software on the theory that Byce was its employee and, therefore, the source code was a "work made for hire." Byce countered, arguing that he was an independent contractor and, therefore, owned the copyright in the work.
In deciding whether an employer/employee relationship existed, the Court examined several factors to determine to what extent JustMed controlled the manner and means of the creation of the source code. Typically in employee vs. independent contractor disputes, factors such as whether an employment agreement exists; whether taxes are withheld and social security paid; to what extent the employer controls the creation of the work product; and what level of skill is required in the work, are examined to see which side proves stronger.
Here, despite that JustMed operated informally as to Byce's compensation, namely, by the issuance of stock; did not exert control over the manner and means of the creation of the source code; and was lax in its tax and withholding procedures, the Court nevertheless concluded that Byce was an employee, making the source code a work made for hire, which meant that JustMed owned the copyright in it.
In other circumstances, such informal employment practices could be seen to favor an independent contractor interpretation. Here, because of the start-up nature of the technology enterprise, the Court relied on other factors (such as that a software developer is expected to be inventive and work independently, that the project was central to JustMed's business and that Byce performed other tasks for JustMed) to buttress its conclusion that he functioned as an employee.
Regardless of whether one considers the outcome fair in this case, had some of the variables changed slightly, it is unclear whether another court would give similar leeway to a technology company faced with a challenge to its copyright ownership in its software. But why take the risk? Had JustMed documented its relationship with Byce and specified who owned the copyright, it could have avoided the expense, disruption and animus that both sides experienced.